Please note that there are two different conference venues:
June 14/15 - Century City Conference Centre
June 16 - Kirstenbosch Conference Centre (transportation available)
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Wednesday, June 14 • 14:30 - 16:00
The Neurobiology of Transgenerational Trauma Transmission: Decolonizing research, the mind, and our schools for First Nations people of North America - Tammy H. Scheidegger, Lea Denny, Carrie King

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Symposium Summary
The Neurobiology of Transgenerational Trauma Transmission: Decolonizing research, the mind, and our schools for First Nations people of North America

Tammy H. Scheidegger, Lea Denny, Carrie King
Facilitator: Ruth Mampane
This symposium will consist of three related presentations on Historical Trauma for First Nations people living in North America: Historical Trauma research and post trauma growth: Using a mental health perspective; Neurodecolonization (through traditional knowledge, well-being & resilience research); and Innovative and proven strategies for culturally responsive, trauma sensitive schools.

Symposium Abstracts 
Historical Trauma Research & Post Trauma Growth: Using a Mental Health Perspective
Lea Denny (Mount Mary University, USA)
Co-Authors: Tammy H. Scheidegger, Carrie King
Introduction: “All Nations-One Tribe: Healing Historical Trauma Together” was a quantitative, exploratory, community and strength-based study (N=112) of adult participants, self-identified as First Nations/Native American/American Indian (Denny et al., 2016). The study identified the prevalence, pervasiveness, and transmission of historical trauma as intergenerational trauma and pathways for post historical trauma growth.
Methods: A purposeful sample of adult First Nations/Native American/American Indians, represented over 20 tribes residing in the state of Wisconsin, USA were surveyed over a one-year period, during community and tribal gathering.  Self-report questionnaires explored the effects of Historical Trauma and resilience using the following measures:  Native Healing Practice Scale (Wyrostok, 2000); Use of Native healing practices scale (Wyrostock, 2000); First Nations self-learning identification scale measuring, (Kaquatosh & Chavez-Korell, 2013); Pride in First Nations Identification scale (Denny et al., 2016);  Historical loss scale and symptoms scale (Whitebeck, 2004); and the ACE (Adverse Childhood Experiences) study survey (Felitti, 1998). 
Findings: Higher Historical Loss scores were expressed by those living on reservations, age was negatively related to loss for the total sample, high ACE scores reported across residencies, urban First Nations people reported a higher proportion of discrimination, and an evaluation of ACE scores and OCI scores revealed no significant correlations.

Neurodecolonization:  Through the lens of traditional knowledge, well-being, & resilience research
Presenter: Tammy H. Scheidegger (Mount Mary University, USA)
Co-Authors: Carrie King, Lea Denny
Introduction: Neurodecolonization Theory focuses on how the brain is impacted and functions through colonization (YellowBird, 2012). This section will review the existent body of research that supports this concept and offer mental health strategies for encouraging post historical trauma growth using mindfulness practices used by indigenous peoples for centuries.
Methods: A meta-analysis of the existent research regarding neurodecolonization was completed using ERIC, EBSCO, PROQUEST, PSYCHARTICLES, PubMed/MEDLINE, & ACADEMIC SEARCH through 2016.  Annotated bibliographies and advanced statistical procedures were completed to identify general themes, as well as, findings that can direct current practice strategies. 
Findings: Neurobiology research identifies how specific brain activities can alter neural networks to enable a person to overcome the myriad effects of trauma and also colonization.  Specifically, mindfulness research implicates that healing practices and ceremonies can delete the neural networks of colonialism for indigenous peoples.

Innovative and proven strategies for culturally responsive, trauma sensitive schools
Presenter: Carrie King (Mount Mary University, USA)
Co-Authors: Tammy Scheidegger 
Introduction: A pilot program that aimed to reduce future mental health concerns in students as a result of early childhood trauma – environmental and interpersonal - will be offered (King & Scheidegger, 2016).  Interventions utilized and shared in this project focused on emerging best practice knowledge (van der Kolk, 2014).  
Methods: A 3-year pilot study to implement trauma sensitive school practices was undertaken within one urban, Milwaukee school. Phase I delivered in 2014-15, focused on faculty and staff development; Phase II, delivered in 2015-16, was designed to reach parents and students and teach them trauma-informed practices, help them learn trauma informed (e.g. therapeutic) techniques for use in the home, and teach students how manage emotions in the classroom. Data was gathered regarding academic progress, behavioral and emotional difficulties that resulted in time out of the classroom, and mindfulness based strategies to increase coping skills to enable sustained learning.
Findings: Elementary office visits for behavioral incidents was reduced by 79% and incidences of classroom disruption and defiance reduced by 80%. Middle school office visits for disruptive and defiant behavior, or physical altercations was reduced by 65%; the number of students involved in physical altercations was reduced by 60%. 

avatar for Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

Lecturer, University of Pretoria
Educational Psychologist; research on family Resilience and indigenous psychology, focus on developmental psychology and learning

avatar for Lea S. Denny

Lea S. Denny

Adjunct Instructor, Mount Mary University
Lea S. Denny received her Bachelor of Science degree in psychology from the University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee. Ms. Denny, MS, LPC-IT earned her graduate degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Mount Mary University (a CACREP program). Her theoretical orientation is rooted... Read More →

Carrie L. King

Mount Mary University
avatar for Tammy H. Scheidegger

Tammy H. Scheidegger

Associate Professor, Practicum & Internship Coordinator, Mount Mary University
Dr. Scheidegger is a tenured, Associate Professor in the Graduate Program in Counseling at Mount Mary University and the Practicum and Internship Coordinator. She served as President of the Wisconsin Counseling Association from 2012 -2013. In 2012, she was also an invited member... Read More →

Wednesday June 14, 2017 14:30 - 16:00 SAST
Room 09 Century City Conference Centre